Is advice to stop smoking from a midwife stressful for pregnant women who smoke? Data from a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: There are no randomized trials examining whether intensive advice to pregnant smokers is more stressful than standard care. METHOD: Nine hundred eighteen U.K. women currently smoking on commencing antenatal care were randomized into three arms. Women in Arm A received one episode of brief advice to stop smoking. Women in Arm B were assessed for stage of change and worked through an exercise in self-help manuals on three occasions. Women in Arm C used a 20-min interactive computer...Expand abstract
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