T cell responses are governed by avidity and co-stimulatory thresholds.
We analyzed the avidity and CD28-mediated co-stimulatory requirements for the activation of T cells in vivo and in vitro. The strength of the T cell/antigen-presenting cell interaction was varied by using altered peptide ligands for stimulation. Co-stimulatory requirements were studied using T cells from CD28-deficient mice. The results indicate that T cell activation is not an all-or-nothing event, but occurs in distinct steps. For each step, a certain avidity, co-stimulatory threshold or bo...Expand abstract
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