Shallow donor state of hydrogen in In2O3 and SnO2: Implications for conductivity in transparent conducting oxides
- Muonium, and by analogy hydrogen, is shown to form a shallow-donor state in In2 O3 and SnO2. The paramagnetic charge state is stable below ∼50 K in In2 O3 and ∼30 K in SnO2 which, coupled with its extremely small effective hyperfine splitting in both cases, allows its identification as the shallow-donor state. This has important implications for the controversial issue of the origins of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
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