A Multilevel Approach to Motivational Climate in Physical Education and Sport Settings: An Individual or a Group Level Construct?
Motivational climate is inherently a group-level construct so that longitudinal, multilevel designs are needed to evaluate its effects on subsequent outcomes. Based on a large sample of physical education classes (2,786 students, 200 classes, 67 teachers), we evaluated the effects of classroom motivational climate (task-involving and ego-involving) and individual goal orientations (task and ego) on individual students' outcomes (intrinsic motivation, attitudes, physical self-concept, and exer...Expand abstract
- Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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