Urinary nicotine concentrations in cigarette and pipe smokers.
Urinary concentrations of nicotine were studied in men who did not smoke (27) and in men who smoked cigarettes only (145) or pipes only (48). The median urinary nicotine concentrations were less than 50 ng/ml (the detection limit of the assay for urine tests) in the non-smokers, 1393 ng/ml in the cigarette smokers, and 1048 ng/ml in the pipe smokers. These values were standardised for urinary pH and creatinine concentration to allow for the fact that nicotine excretion is influenced by the ac...Expand abstract
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