Mechanisms underlying pacemaker activity in the sinus node remain controversial, with some ascribing a dominant role to timing events in the surface membrane ("membrane clock") and others to uptake and release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) ("calcium clock"). Here we discuss recent evidence on mechanisms underlying pacemaker activity with a particular emphasis on the many roles of calcium. There are particular areas of controversy concerning the contribution of calcium spark-...Expand abstract
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The importance of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms for the initiation of the heartbeat.
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