Within-population colour variation is widespread in animals, yet the determinants of variable coloration have been relatively neglected by ecologists. Age-dependent expression of conspicuous coloration is prevalent, particularly in birds. Such patterns can be generated by multiple combinations of demographic heterogeneity or within-individual change; longitudinal analyses are necessary to establish the importance of these processes. Further, although pigment-based colours are composite traits...Expand abstract
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Pigments versus structure: examining the mechanism of age-dependent change in a carotenoid-based colour.
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