NF-kappaB transcription factors induce pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. IL-8) in response to cytokines (e.g. TNFalpha, IL-1beta) or other stimuli. In the basal state, they are sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory IkappaB proteins. Pro-inflammatory signaling triggers polyubiquitination of intermediaries (e.g. RIP1), which activate IkappaB kinases that trigger Ser phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, thereby promoting nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. A negative feedback loo...Expand abstract
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Hydrogen peroxide prolongs nuclear localization of NF-kappaB in activated cells by suppressing negative regulatory mechanisms.
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