Membrane insertion of a voltage sensor helix.
Most membrane proteins contain a transmembrane (TM) domain made up of a bundle of lipid-bilayer-spanning α-helices. TM α-helices are generally composed of a core of largely hydrophobic amino acids, with basic and aromatic amino acids at each end of the helix forming interactions with the lipid headgroups and water. In contrast, the S4 helix of ion channel voltage sensor (VS) domains contains four or five basic (largely arginine) side chains along its length and yet adopts a TM orientation as ...Expand abstract
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