Thulium salts and complexes are shown to be emissive from three states in the excited state manifold of Tm(3+). Formation of the (1)D(2) state can result in luminescence, or in energy transfer to the lower energy (1)G(4) and (3)H(4) emissive states. Where chromophores are present in the ligand structure, emission is restricted to thulium centred emissive states that are lower in energy than the chromophore centred donor state. We have also observed direct multi-photon excitation of the thuliu...Expand abstract
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Luminescence and upconversion from thulium(III) species in solution.
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