Fouling of the membrane by cell and protein mixtures can result in severe flux declines, leading to the eventual need to clean or replace the membrane. In this study multi-photon microscopy, a fluorescence-based technique is used to 3-D image in situ the fouling of microfiltration membranes by suspensions containing combinations of washed yeast, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin. Appropriate fluorescent labelling allows the three foulant species to be clearly identified. Images correla...Expand abstract
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Membrane fouling by cell-protein mixtures: in situ characterisation using multi-photon microscopy.
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