The chloride ion (Cl⁻) is known as an aggressive species in the aqueous solutions that adsorbs to the imperfect sites on the metal surfaces, such as defects, impurities and second-phase particles. This adsorption process could change the chemical composition and properties, such as ion conductivity, of the passive film. As a result, the passive film becomes less protective and breaks down at some places where the underlying metals are exposed to the electrolyte and dissolved through anodic re...Expand abstract
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Direct evidence of initial pitting corrosion
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