PURPOSE: We investigated hypoxia and necrosis in high grade and invasive bladder cancer, and related this to prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of 98 primary cystectomy specimens scored for necrosis, and the hypoxia associated markers carbonic anhydrase IX, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and 2 alpha, and Bcl2/adenovirus EIB 19 kDa interacting protein 3. Tumor tissue array was used with cores taken from representative and perinecrotic tumor re...Expand abstract
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An investigation into the prognostic significance of necrosis and hypoxia in high grade and invasive bladder cancer.
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