One of evolutionary biology's most persistent puzzles is the fact that apparent directional selection on a heritable trait in a natural population often does not produce a selection response. We tested three possible explanations for this problem using data on body size of more than 23,000 individuals, measured over 18 yr, in a collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) population. Using a restricted maximum likelihood "animal model," we found a narrow-sense heritability for fledgling tarsus l...Expand abstract
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Phenotypic selection on a heritable size trait revisited.
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