Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies of male circumcision and the risk of HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa, and to summarize the findings in a meta-analysis. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out of studies published up to April 1999 that included circumcision as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection among men in sub-Saharan Africa. A random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled relative risk (RR...Expand abstract
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