Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in rheumatoid arthritis: regulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in addition to being a growth factor for granulocytes and macrophages, is an activator of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and induces HLA class II expression and cytokine synthesis in these target cells. Macrophage activation and class II expression are prominent features in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints, but the mechanism of their stimulation is not understood, since interferon-gamma, the major stimulus of class II expres...Expand abstract
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