Risk sensitivity for amounts of and delay to rewards: Adaptation for uncertainty or by-product of reward rate maximising?
Observations that humans and other species are sensitive to variability in the outcome of their choices has led to the widespread assumption that this sensitivity reflects adaptations to cope with risk (stochasticity of action consequences). We question this assumption in experiments with starlings. We show that choices between outcomes that are risky in both amount and delay to food are predictable from preferences in the absence of risk. We find that the overarching best predictor of an opt...Expand abstract
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