Dissociable reward and timing signals in human midbrain and ventral striatum.
Reward prediction error (RPE) signals are central to current models of reward-learning. Temporal difference (TD) learning models posit that these signals should be modulated by predictions, not only of magnitude but also timing of reward. Here we show that BOLD activity in the VTA conforms to such TD predictions: responses to unexpected rewards are modulated by a temporal hazard function and activity between a predictive stimulus and reward is depressed in proportion to predicted reward. By c...Expand abstract
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