Heartbeat perception and panic disorder: possible explanations for discrepant findings.
Results on cardiac awareness in panic disorder are inconsistent. The present study attempted to clarify whether differences in instructions or the inclusion of patients taking antidepressant medication could account for these inconsistencies. 112 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia were compared to 40 normal controls on the heartbeat perception task developed by Schandry (1981) [Schandry, R., Psychophysiology, 18, 483-488] using a standard instruction ("count all heartbeats you feel...Expand abstract
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