Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.
Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a p...Expand abstract
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