Biological models of panic disorder and agoraphobia--a review.
Biological models have had major consequences for the therapy and theory of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Authors such as Klein and Sheehan propose a qualitative biological distinction between panic attacks and other types of anxiety. Central arguments for their models include drug specificity, panic induction, family data, spontaneity of panic attacks and separation anxiety. A look at the evidence, however, shows surprisingly little empirical support for these arguments. In spite of the gr...Expand abstract
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