The pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease: primate studies.
Gait freezing and poor balance are two of the most disabling symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and also of other untreatable progressive neurological disorders, such as multi-system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). In PD, these symptoms are currently inadequately managed by drugs and also the present surgical treatment of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi). The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...Expand abstract
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