Multifocal urothelial cancers with the mutator phenotype are of monoclonal origin and require panurothelial treatment for tumor clearance.
PURPOSE: UC is a disease of the entire urothelium, characterized by multiplicity and multifocality. The clonal relationship among multiple UCs has implications regarding adjuvant chemotherapy. It has been investigated in studies of chromosomal alteration and single gene mutation. However, these genetic changes can occur in unrelated tumors under similar carcinogenic selection pressures. Tumors with high MSI have numerous DNA mutations, of which many provide no selection benefit. While these ...Expand abstract
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