Femtosecond near-infrared lasers as a novel tool for non-invasive real-time high-resolution time-lapse imaging of chloroplast division in living bundle sheath cells of Arabidopsis.
Non-linear excitation of fluorophores by contemporaneous absorption of two or more near-infrared (NIR) photons following diffraction-limited focusing with high-numerical-aperture objectives circumvents out-of-focus fluorescence (without a confocal pinhole) and spatially limits photobleaching and photodamage to the minute sub-femtoliter focal volume. This is in contrast to optical events in conventional confocal imaging systems using ultraviolet (UV) or visible laser sources wherein the entire...Expand abstract
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