Malaria's indirect contribution to all-cause mortality in the Andaman Islands during the colonial era.
Malaria has a substantial secondary effect on other causes of mortality. From the 19th century, malaria epidemics in the Andaman Islands' penal colony were initiated by the brackish swamp-breeding malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus and fuelled by the importation of new prisoners. Malaria was a major determinant of the highly variable all-cause mortality rate (correlation coefficient r(2)=0.60, n=68, p<0.0001) from 1872 to 1939. Directly attributed malaria mortality based on post-mortem exa...Expand abstract
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