Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated?
Why do mutualists perform costly behaviours that benefit individuals of a different species? One of the factors that may stabilize mutualistic interactions is when individuals preferentially reward more mutualistic (beneficial) behaviour and/or punish less mutualistic (more parasitic) behaviour. We develop a model that shows how such sanctions provide a fitness benefit to the individuals that carry them out. Although this approach could be applied to a number of symbioses, we focus on how it ...Expand abstract
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