The danger of systematic bias in group-level FMRI-lag-based causality estimation.
Schippers, Renken and Keysers (NeuroImage, 2011) present a simulation of multi-subject lag-based causality estimation. We fully agree that single-subject evaluations (e.g., Smith et al., 2011) need to be revisited in the context of multi-subject studies, and Schippers' paper is a good example, including detailed multi-level simulation and cross-subject statistical modelling. The authors conclude that "the average chance to find a significant Granger causality effect when no actual influence i...Expand abstract
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