Muscle sounds in Parkinson's disease.
BACKGROUND: A sound with a frequency of around 40 Hz can be heard, with a stethoscope, in the muscles of the hand and forearm during tonic contraction or movement. This sound is the acoustic correlate of the Piper rhythm seen in electromyographic records of muscle activity. The way in which motor activity is organised at the cortical level may determine the frequency of the sound heard. METHODS: The wrist extensor muscles in the forearm of seven patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, s...Expand abstract
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