Germline mutations of the PTEN/MMAC1/TEP and LKB1 genes cause hamartomas to develop in the gastrointestinal tracts of patients with Cowden syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, respectively. PTEN mutations may also be responsible for some cases of juvenile polyposis. Histologically, hamartomas appear benign, but there is good evidence that in these syndromes, the hamartomas can progress to colorectal carcinoma. It remains unknown whether or not cancers that develop from hamartomas acquire a sp...Expand abstract
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Genetic pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis rarely involve the PTEN and LKB1 genes outside the inherited hamartoma syndromes.
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