Neuroendocrine immune responses to inflammation: the concept of the neuroendocrine immune loop.
The neuroendocrine and immune responses to inflammatory stress represents an integrated circuit whose basis is reviewed in this chapter. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 released from inflammatory foci initiate local anti-inflammatory mechanisms and travel via the blood stream to the brain where they trigger a variety of neuroendocrine counter-regulatory mechanisms. There is therefore an important neuroendocrine-immune loop in which stimulatory signals are rece...Expand abstract
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