Th cells act via two synergistic pathways to promote antiviral CD8+ T cell responses.
The mechanisms of how Th cells promote CD8(+) T cell responses during viral infections are largely unknown. In this study, we unraveled the mechanisms of T cell help for CD8(+) T cell responses during vaccinia virus infection. Our results demonstrate that Th cells promote vaccinia virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses via two interconnected synergistic pathways: First, CD40L expressed by activated CD4(+) T cells instructs dendritic cells to produce bioactive IL-12p70, which is directly sense...Expand abstract
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