To date, two forms of microsatellite instability (MSI) have been described in human cancer. MSI typical of hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), is due to deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and is defined with mono- and dinucleotide repeat microsatellites. A second variety of instability is best seen at selective tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST; elevated microsatellite alterations at select tetranucleotides). While MSI occurs infrequently in bladder cancers, EMAST is common. Sporadic ...Expand abstract
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Distinct patterns of microsatellite instability are seen in tumours of the urinary tract.
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