Temporary DDD pacing offers significant hemodynamic benefits in emergency management of bradyarrhythmias but is underused because of its complexity (two leads) and unreliability. Single lead VDD pacing with atrial sensing via a floating dipole is feasible, but atrial pacing is limited by high thresholds and phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). Overlapping biphasic impulse (OLBI) stimulation may avoid these problems. The authors designed a single lead balloon-tipped catheter for temporary transven...Expand abstract
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A simplified approach to temporary DDD pacing using a single lead, balloon-tipped catheter with overlapping biphasic impulse stimulation.
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