Dysrhythmia, dysphoria, and depression: the interaction of learned helplessness and circadian dysrhythmia in the pathogenesis of depression.
Increasing evidence suggests that endogenomorphic depressions involve a disruption of circadian rhythms. We review this evidence in relation to comparable findings in animal helplessness studies. We examine the neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and nosological implications of such findings for both helplessness and depression. A disruption of circadian rhythms provides a framework, which suggests three sets of possible interactions between psychology and biology in the pathogenesis of h...Expand abstract
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