OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether placebo controls should be used in the evaluation of surgical interventions. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from their inception to November 2013. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised clinical trials comparing any surgical intervention with placebo. Surgery was defined as any procedure that both changes the anatomy and requires a skin incision or use of endoscopic techniques. DATA EXTRA...Expand abstract
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Use of placebo controls in the evaluation of surgery: systematic review.
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