1. Despite the accelerating global spread of urbanized habitats and its associated implications for wildlife and humans, surprisingly little is known about the biology of urban ecosystems. 2. Using data from a 60-year study period, this paper provides a detailed description of how the northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis L.--generally considered a shy forest species--colonized the city of Hamburg, Germany. Six non-mutually exclusive hypotheses are investigated regarding the environmental facto...Expand abstract
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The establishment of an urban bird population.
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